Hairdressers marketed a styling method under the trade name "Marcel Waving" which involved heat and chemicals. Perms, especially Tight Perms were often termed "Marcel waves" by the women of that day.
|At home many women use curling tongs heated either on a gas stove or spirit lamp to produce tight waves. Once established these tight curls needed to be protected and maintained and various clips and pins were available for this purpose. Many a woman spent a sleepless night caused by going to bed with a hair filled with metal clips and pins. They would tolerate this discomfort for one reason only which was simply the hope that their tight "pin waves" and "finger curls" would be protected until the following day.